17 Sept. 335:
Constantine excavates a Cliffside to establish a shrine in Jerusalem at the traditional site of Jesus’ burial and resurrection.
On the constantan’s orders, soldiers cut away the Cliffside along the cave-tomb. It was then encased within a small building and later covered by a domed rotunda just to the east; constantine built a large basilica, which was consecrated in 335. According to some macarius, bishop of Jerusalem asked for constantine’s help in restoring the holy places associated by Christians with the life and death of Jesus. Other sources say that in c.326, the emperor’s mother Helena went on a pilgrimage to the holy land where she built churches in Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives and collected relics. On being shown the traditional site of Jesus’ tomb in Jerusalem covered by a roman temple dating from the second century, Helena began to excavate and miraculously guided to the remains of the cross on which Jesus was crucified.
A holy shrine for Christians, the church of the holy sepulcher survived fire and earthquake before being almost completely destroyed by a Fatimid caliph in 1009. The army of the first crusade sang a te deum(a hymn of thanksgiving) within its ruined walls after capturing Jerusalem in 1099, and crusader later rebuked the church in Romanesque style, giving it the basic shape it has to be. Traces of constantines’ original building remain and, although some expert has doubted the authenticity of the site, a strong body of archeological opinion now accepts the traditional identification of the tomb with the burial place of Jesus.SK
21 June 1813:
The British Invade America
British attacks on Washington and Baltimore inspire “the star-spangled banner”
The 1812 Anglo-American war, set off by the royal navy’s interference with u.s. commerce, seizure of u.s ships, and pressing of seamen, was an off shot of the Napoleonic wars engulfing Europe. In 1813, the Americans invaded Canada and burn Toronto’s public building. In retaliation, the British sailed into Chesapeake Bay in 1814 and landed a 4,000-strong force, bent on destroying Washington, the u.s. capital then a town of around 8,000 inhabitant. The few defenders were scattered at Bladensburg outside the city and included president Madison, who have to send a hasty message to his wife, dolley, to flee the president house (later called the white house). She took the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington with her but the arriving red coats found in table set for a grand dinner, with joint roasting and fine wines ready they sat down happily to enjoy it before setting the house on fire.
They British went on to rebuilt the capital building the treasury, and other public building to charred ruins. Witness George Gleig described, “The blazing of houses, ships, and stores, the report of exploring magazines and crash of falling roofs.” The British failed to inflict a blow to U.S. morale. British commander general Robert Ross was killed in action at Baltimore soon afterward and a successful U.S. defense of the fort there inspired Francis Scott key to write “the star-spangled banner. “The end of the war in 1815 left the union more securely established than ever. RC
31 Dec. 1793:
Thomas Jefferson Resigns
A strong opponent of federal power resigns as American secretary of state.
George Washington was an experienced delegator and, as president of the united state, recruited talent that included Alexandra Hamilton at the treasury, Thomas Jefferson as secretary of states for foreign affairs, and James Madison as leader of the house of the representatives. Jefferson, a Virginia aristocrat like Washington, accepted the foreign affairs portfolio with miss giving’s. He admired Washington, but they were differences between them.
As minister in Paris Jefferson has witness the beginning of the French revolution, which he believed might bring the American revolution‘s libertarians ideals to Europe and should be supported. Washington was more cautious and isolationist. He believed that the purpose of American foreign policy should be the promotion of American interests. Jefferson was alarmed by the extent to which Alexandra Hamilton and his supporters, who believed in a powerful central federal government, seemed to want to turn the presidency almost into an American monarchy. Jefferson strongly disapproved of Hamilton’s creation of a national bank, which he regarded as “adverse to liberty”, and tried unsuccessfully to persuade Washington to veto it.
Two political parties were now developing in America: the federalist, who followed Hamilton and the republicans (or democratic republicans), who believed in state rights, wanted federal power held in cheque, and found a spokesman in Jefferson. Jefferson supporter have considered the ancestors of today democratic party (the modern republican party was not founded until years afterward). Finding himself in a minority in the cabinet Jefferson resigned and went home to his estate at Monticello in Virginia, from where he would before long emerge to become vice president and then presient.RC
Source: 1001 days that shaped the world by Quintessence