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• The first ever seed drill was invented by Englishman Jethro Tull in 1701

Historical Facts: Agricultural And Industrial Revolution

Agricultural Revolution:

 

• The first ever seed drill was invented by Englishman Jethro Tull in 1701

• The Agricultural Revolution refers to dramatic changes in farming in Britain in the 1700s and later in the USA.

• Before the 1700s, farmlands was mostly wide open fields, cultivated n narrow strips by peasants growing food for themselves, using traditional methods.

• The Agricultural Revolution created large farms, growing food for profit in enclosed fields, using specialist techniques.

• The most dramatic effect was enclosure, in which peasants were evicted from open fields as they were parceled up into small fields for rearing livestock

• Crop-growing was improved by techniques such as the four-field rotation system

• The four-field system devised by ‘Turnip’ Townshend and Thomas Coke meant Growing turnips, clover, barley and wheat in successive years so land was used all the time.

• Livestock farmers found how to breed cattle, horses and sheep larger and fatter, like Bakewell’s Leicester sheep.

• New machines were invented. Jethro Tull’s drill, for example, made holes and planted seeds in them.

• In 1793, Eli Whitney invented a gin machine to separate cotton fibre from the seeds – so making large- scale cotton production profitable.

• In 1834, American Cyrus McCormick made the first mechanical harvester.

 

Industrial Revolution :

• In 1764, Lancashire weaver James Hargreaves created the ‘spinning jenny’ to help cotton fibres into yarn (thread) on lots of spindles turned by a single handle

• The Industrial Revolution refers to the dramatic growth in factories that began in the 1700s

• Before the Industrial Revolution, most ordinary people were farmers who lived in small villages. Afterwards, most were factory hands and foremen living in huge cities

• The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the late 1700s and in France, the USA and Germany in the early 1800s.

• The Farming Revolution created a pool of cheap labour, while the growth of European colonies created vast markets for things like clothing.

• The turning point was the change from hand-turned machines like the spinning jenny, to machines driven by big waters wheels like Richard Arkwright’s water powered spinning frame’ of 1766

• In 1771, Arkwright installed water frames at Crompton Mill, Derby and created the world’s first big factory.

• In the 1780s, James Watt developed a steam engine to drive machines and steam engines quickly replaced water as the main source of power in factories

• In 1713,  Abraham Darby found how to use coke, rather than wood charcoal, to make huge amounts of iron

• In 1784, Henry Cort found how to remove impurities from cast iron to make wrought iron and iron became the key material of the Industrial Revolution

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(Source: 1001 days that shaped the world by Quintessence)

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