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HISTORICAL FACTS: Italian Independence, Latin American Revolts

• After the Napoleonic Wars, Italy was split into various kingdoms- some, like Naples, under French Bourbon Kings, some under Austrian rule and papal states under the pope.
• The Carbonari (meaning ‘charcoal burners’) were a secret society working for Italian freedom.
• In 1820, the Carbonari got the Bourbon king of Naples to agree to a constitution, but the Austrians intervened to abolish it.

• In 1831, Giuseppe Mazzini founded “Young Italy” to unite Italy. The drive to unite the country became known as the Risorgimento (rising again).
• In 1848, revolutions broke out across Italy, but were put down.
• In 1857, count Cavour, prime minister of piedmont, asked France for help with evicting the Austrians.
• In 1859, France and Piedmont beat the Austrians at Magenta and Solferino. After political Wrangling, northern Italy was joined to Piedmont under king victor Emmaunel11. • The Battle of Magenta was so bloodly that a new purple- red colour was named after it.
• In 1860, the great hero Garibaldi led a rebellion and conquered all of southern Italy. Only Cavour’s intervention stopped Garibaldi from taking Rome.
• In 1861, most of Italy was united under Victor Emmanuel. Venice was added in 1866 and Rome as capital in 1870.


Latin American Revolts:

• By 1800, Latin Americans were ready to revolt against the centuries of rule by Spain and Portugal
• When the Napoleonic Wars turned Spain and Portugal into a battleground, Latin American revolutionaries seized their chance
• Mexicans, led by priests Hidalgo and Morelos revolted in 1810. The Spanish quelled the revolt and executed Hildalgo and Morelos. In 1821, however, Mexico gained independence.
• In 1810, Jose de San Martin led Argentina to independence. In 1816, San Martin made an epic march across the Andes to bring Chile freedom, too – with the help of Bernardo O’Haggins
• In the north, Venezuelans Francisco de Miranda, Simon Bolibar and Antonio de Sucre led a long fight against the Spanish in New Granada (now Colombia) and Peru. In 1819, after a victory at Boyaca in Colombia, Bolivar proclaimed the Republic of Gran Colombia (now Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama).
• In 1824, Sucre won a crucial victory at Ayacucho in Peru, freeing all of north South America from Spanish rule.
• The Republic of Bolivia was named after Bolivar, who wrote its constitution. Sucre became its first president.
• Brazil gained its freedom from Portugal without a fight when its ruler Prince John fled. His son became emperor.
• Miranda died in a Spanish jail after Bolivar handed him over. Sucre was assassinated in 1830. Bolivar died in 1830, shortly after a failed assassination attempt.

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