The colonisation of America:
• In the 1580s English people tried unsuccessfully to set up colonies in North America.
• The first successful English colony was set up at Jamestown, Virginia, on 24 may, with 104 colonist
• Many Jamestown colonies died in ‘the starving time ‘of the winter of 1609.
• In 1610, fighting broke out with local Indians as the desperate colonist took the Indians ‘food supply.
• Colonist leader john smith was captured by the Indians, but the chief’s daughter, pocahonats, saved his life.
• In 1612, colonist john Rolfe introduced tobacco from the West Indies. It became the basis of Virginia’s economy.
• Pocahnotas was held hostage by the colonist in 1613. While captive she met, fell in love with and wed John Rolfe.
• In December 1620, 102 ‘pilgrims ‘arrived from Plymouth, England, in the mayflower and set up a new colony near cape God. They survived thanks to help from Wampanoag Indians.
• In November 1621, the pilgrims invited the Wampanoag’s to celebrate their first harvest. This first thanksgiving day is now celebrated every year in USA .
DECEMBER 25, 336: The First Christmas;
Jesus Christ birthday is first recorded as being observed on this day.
A calendar compiled one furius Dionysius Filocalus in 354 contains the following entry for the year 336; villl kal lan.nayus. christus in betleem ludeae(Eight day before the kalends of January [December 25], birth of jesus Christ in Bethlehem in Judea). This is the first definite indications that by mid-fourth century christains had fixed December 25 as the date of Jesus birth. The gospel writers make no mention of the time of year that he was born “they call it the ‘”Birthday of the unconquered.’who is so unconquered as our lord?” john Chrysostom (c.407), del solst. Et aequin
Winter solstice and was already celebrated in Rome as sol invictus (unconquered sun), a popular pagan holiday. It fell exactly nine months after the spring equinox on March 25, which early Christians held to be the fourth day of creation wh3en light-givers such as the sun were brought into being. It was logical to also regard March 25 as the day of Jesus conception.
The custom of celebrating Christ’s birth on December 25 spread from Rome to the rest of the church by the late fourth century, but most regarded Epiphany (January 6 ) as the more important festival as millions of Christians still do. It was not until the middle ages that the celebrations Christmas day began to take a form we would recognize today, with the ox and the ass at the manger, and shepherds tending their flocks in the snow.
221 B.C.E: China united ‘‘For Ten Thousand Generations”
Zheng, king qin, conquers the other chines states and adopts the title shi huangdi
For more 200 years, during the warring states period, china had been divided onto rival states. Qin in the west had already begun to emerge as the most powerful of them when zheng became king in 246 B.C.E, at age thirteen. Eight years later, through a combination of surprise attacks, espionage and bribery, he set about eliminating the six other states one by one. Qi, in the northeast. Was the last to fall in221 B.C.E. for the first time in history, china was united under one ruler and zheng proclaimed himself shi Huangdi, the first emperor. His dynasty, he announced, would last 10,000m generations.
With his new chief minister, li si, shi Huangdi ruthlessly imposed centralized rule. He did away with all regional variations in weights and measures, standardized the laws and the Chinese script, and began to build roads and canals. He constructed an earth barrier to link the frontier fortresses in the north-the beginning of the Great Wall of China.
Shi Huangdi was afraid of one thing only-death-and is supposed to have travelled to the island of Japan in search of the elixir of life. It took 700,000 men to build his massive tomb complex, said to be a representation of the cosmos. In 1974, men digging a well broke into a large pit containing thousands of life-size clay soldiers. They had stumbled upon the greatest archaeological discovery ever made in china-the Terracotta Army of more than 7,000 warriors that had stood guard close to the body of the first Emperor for over 2,000 years.
Source: 1001 days that shaped the world by Quintessence