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Fibromyalgia, Causes, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment




Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. Researchers believe that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by affecting the way your brain and spinal cord process painful and nonpainful signals.

Symptoms often begin after an event, such as physical trauma, surgery, infection or significant psychological stress.

In other cases, symptoms gradually accumulate over time with no single triggering event.

Women are more likely to develop fibromyalgia than are men. Many people who have fibromyalgia also have tension headaches, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and depression.

While there is no cure for fibromyalgia, a variety of medications can help control symptoms. Exercise, relaxation and stress-reduction measures also may help.

Symptoms of fibromyalgia can be confused with those of arthritis, or joint inflammation.

However, unlike arthritis, it has not been found to cause joint or muscle inflammation and damage. It is seen as a rheumatic condition, in other words, one that causes soft tissue pain or myofascial pain.

According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), around 5 millionTrusted Source adults aged 18 years or over in the United States experience fibromyalgia, and 80 to 90 percent of fibromyalgia patients are women.

Fast facts on fibromyalgia:

Fibromyalgia causes widespread pain, fatigue, and other types of discomfort.

Symptoms resemble those of arthritis, but fibromyalgia affects the soft tissue, not the joints.

The cause is unknown, but risk factors include traumatic injury, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, and genetic factors.

There is no cure, but medications, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapy can help relieve symptoms and improve sleep quality.


A combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training, or strength training, has been linked to a reduction in painTrusted Source, tenderness, stiffness, and sleep disturbance, in some patients.

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If exercise is helping with symptoms, it is important to maintain consistency in order to see progress. Working out with a partner or personal trainer may help to keep the exercise program active.

Some patients have experienced improvements in their quality of life after starting acupuncture therapy for fibromyalgia. The number of sessions required will depend on the symptoms and their severity.

One study found that 1 in 5 people with fibromyalgia use acupuncture within 2 yearsTrusted Source of diagnosis. The researchers concluded that it may improve pain and stiffness. However, they call for more studies.

Behavior modification therapy

Behavior modification therapy is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that aims to reduce negative, stress- or pain-increasing behaviors and improve positive, mindful behaviors. It includes learning new coping skills and relaxation exercises.


The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unclear. However, current thinking in the field of Rheumatology suggests that fibromyalgia is a problem with central pain processing in the brain, where there may be an increased sensitivity or perception of pain to a given trigger.

There is a range of likely risk factors, including: a stressful, traumatic physical or emotional event, such as a car accident, repetitive injuries, rheumatoid arthritis or other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, central nervous system (CNS) problems.

Fibromyalgia may also be hereditary. Females who have a close relative with fibromyalgia have a higher risk of experiencing it themselves.

People with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or spinal arthritis, known ankylosing spondylitis, have a higher riskTrusted Source of developing fibromyalgia, as do patients with some other rheumatic diseases.

Many researchers believe that repeated nerve stimulation causes the brain and spinal cord of people with fibromyalgia to change. This change involves an abnormal increase in levels of certain chemicals in the brain that signal pain.

In addition, the brain’s pain receptors seem to develop a sort of memory of the pain and become sensitized, meaning they can overreact to painful and nonpainful signals.

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There are likely many factors that lead to these changes, including:

Genetics. Because fibromyalgia tends to run in families, there may be certain genetic mutations that may make you more susceptible to developing the disorder.

Infections. Some illnesses appear to trigger or aggravate fibromyalgia.

Physical or emotional events. Fibromyalgia can sometimes be triggered by a physical event, such as a car accident. Prolonged psychological stress may also trigger the condition.


It can take some time to confirm a diagnosis of fibromyalgia because the symptoms resemble those of other conditions, such as hypothyroidism. These conditions must first be ruled out before diagnosing fibromyalgia.

Pain and symptoms over the previous week, out of 19 identified body parts, plus levels of fatigue, unsatisfactory sleep, or cognitive problems, symptoms that have been ongoing for at least 3 months, no presence of another health problem that would explain the symptoms.

Previously, ‘tender points’ were used to diagnose the condition. However, these are no longer recommended to aid the diagnosis of fibromyalgia.


The primary symptoms of fibromyalgia include Widespread pain and Fatigue.

Widespread pain

The pain associated with fibromyalgia often is described as a constant dull ache that has lasted for at least three months. To be considered widespread, the pain must occur on both sides of your body and above and below your waist.


People with fibromyalgia often awaken tired, even though they report sleeping for long periods of time. Sleep is often disrupted by pain, and many patients with fibromyalgia have other sleep disorders, such as restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea.

Cognitive difficulties. A symptom commonly referred to as “fibro fog” impairs the ability to focus, pay attention and concentrate on mental tasks.

Fibromyalgia often co-exists with other conditions, such as:

Irritable bowel syndrome, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Migraine and other types of headaches, Interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome,Temporomandibular joint disorders, Anxiety, Depression

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Risk factors

Your sex. Fibromyalgia is diagnosed more often in women than in men.

Family history. You may be more likely to develop fibromyalgia if a parent or sibling also has the condition.

Other disorders. If you have osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, you may be more likely to develop fibromyalgia.


The pain, fatigue, and poor sleep quality associated with fibromyalgia can interfere with your ability to function at home or on the job. The frustration of dealing with an often-misunderstood condition also can result in depression and health-related anxiety.


Around 20 percent of people with fibromyalgia try acupuncture within the first 2 years. It may work, but more research is needed.

Medical attention is needed because fibromyalgia can be difficult to manage. As it is a syndrome, each patient will experience a different set of symptoms, and an individual treatment plan will be necessary.

Treatment may include some or all of the following: an active exercise program, acupuncture, psychotherapy, behavior modification therapy, chiropractic care, massage, physical therapy, low-dose anti-depressants, although these are not a first-line treatment.

People with fibromyalgia need to work with their doctor to come up with a treatment plan that provides the best results.


Drugs may be recommended to treat certain symptoms.

These may include over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers. However, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) issued a recommendation against using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat fibromyalgia in their updated 2016 guidelines.

Antidepressants, such as duloxetine, or Cymbalta, and milnacipran, or Savella, may help reduce pain. Anti-seizure drugs, such as gabapentin also known as Neurontin, and pregabalin, or Lyrica, may be prescribed.

However, a review has suggested that patients often stop using these drugs because they are not effective in relieving pain or because of their adverse effects.

Patients should tell the doctor about any other medications they are taking to avoid side-effects and interactions with other drugs.

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Business News

Opara, Fidelity Bank Director, Takes Over as CIBN President




From Dooyum Naadzenga, Lagos

Executive Director of Fidelity Bank Plc,  Dr Ken Opara was at the weekend  sworn in as the 22nd President and Chairman of Council, Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN).

In a colourful ceremony at Landmark Event Centre, Victoria Island, Lagos, Dr Ken Opara was given the mandate to steer the ship of the highly revered Institute in the next coming years.

He takes over from Dr Bayo Olugbemi, who in a speech at the ceremony, described Opara as a big asset to the institute.

The ceremony was attended by who-is-who in the banking industry, top business executives as well as political leaders. The swearing in ceremony was performed by Justice (Dr) Adeseyi Olateru- Olagbeji.

A career banker, Opara has over 20 years industry experience and has worked in several banks before coming to Fidelity Bank.

Opara, who was the erstwhile 1st Vice-President of the institute, was elected unopposed at the institute’s 2022 Annual General Meeting held at the Bankers’ House, Adeola Hopewell, Victoria Island, Lagos on Saturday, April 9th, 2022.

In his acceptance speech, Dr Opara thanked the outgoing President/Chairman of the Council, Dr. Bayo Olugbemi, FCIB, for his commitment to lifting the banner of the institute as well as the banking and finance industry to enviable heights. He also expressed his gratitude to other stakeholders for their support for the 59yr old institute.

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“I thank all our esteemed members, for the confidence reposed in me and my colleagues whom you have elected to superintend the affairs of our Institute for the next two years. The outpouring of your support is indeed overwhelming and humbling for which we are very grateful.

It is therefore with immense respect and a deep sense of responsibility and accountability that I wholeheartedly accept your mandate to serve as the 22nd President/Chairman of Council of our Highly revered Institute.

I am mindful of the fact that you have high expectations from me and my colleagues who have just been elected. Let me reassure you that we shall collectively do our best to deliver on your mandate as an aggregator, innovator and implementer to enhance the Institute’s value propositions. My detailed agenda in this regard will be unfolded in my Inaugural Speech on May 21, 2022, at the Presidential Investiture ceremony”, said Dr Opara.

Also elected at the AGM are Prof. Pius Oladeji Olanrewaju, FCIB as the 1st Vice President; Mr. Oladele Alabi, FCIB as the 2nd Vice President and Mrs. Mojisola Bakare-Asieru, FCIB as the National Treasurer. Those elected in the Governing Council are Dr. Victor Ndubuisi Aguwah, FCIB; Mr. Olayinka Alade Odutola, FCIB; Ms. Mary Oluwakemi Aina, ACIB and Mr. Segun Oshadare, FCIB to serve the tenure (2022-2024).

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Dr. Kenneth Opara holds a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in Finance and Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka as well as a Ph.D. in Credit Management from the International University of Panama.

He has over 29 years’ core-banking experience spanning diverse areas including Credit, Treasury, Retail, Consumer and Commercial Banking, International Operations and Corporate Banking.  Prior to his appointment as Executive Director in charge of the Lagos & Southwest Directorate of Fidelity Bank, he served as General Manager/Regional Bank Head, Ikeja; Divisional Head, Managed SMEs, Multilateral Agencies & Trade Missions; Divisional Head, SMEs, Electronic & Consumer Banking amongst a number of roles.

With a vision to be a global reference point for skills and conduct in the banking and finance industry, the CIBN is the umbrella professional body for bankers in Nigeria. The Institute has members including the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation, all deposit money banks, development banks, mortgage banks, microfinance banks, discount houses amongst others.

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2023: APC Adjusts Convention Timetable, Keeps Mum on Zoning




* Osinbanjo Woes Delegates with Accommodation, Feeding

By Jude Opara, Abuja

Barely two weeks to its National Convention, the All Progressives Congress (APC) on Wednesday announced a slight adjustment of the timetable for the exercise.

National Publicity Secretary of the party, Felix Morka, told newsmen after a meeting of the National Working Committee (NWC) that the exercise, which was earlier billed for  May 29-  June1,  would now  take place between May 29 and 30.

“We have a very quick announcement to make this evening regarding the timetable for our primaries, just today, Wednesday, the National Working Committee of the All  Progressives Congress has met and approved a revised timetable schedule of activities for House of Assembly, National Assembly, governorship primaries and appeals that arise from that.

“Our governorship and House of Representatives primary election will now take place on Thursday the 26th of May 2022.

“The Senate and House of Assembly primaries will now take place on Friday to the 27th of May 2022.

“The election appeals for governorship and the House of Representatives will now take place on Friday, the 27th of May 2022. While the appeals for the Senate and House of Assembly primaries will take place on Saturday the 28th of May 2022.

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“While the special convention and presidential primary will now take place between Sunday to the 29th and Monday 30th of May 2022”.

When asked if the mode of election was decided, Morka said; “That will be contained in the guidelines that we’re just about to issue”.

The National Publicity Secretary further responded to the burning issue of zoning by saying that he was not aware of any decision made on that.

Osinbanjo Woes Delegates with Accommodation, Feeding

The camp of Vice President, Professor Yemi Osinbanjo is wooing delegates of the All Progressives Congress (APC) with accommodation and decent feeding, even as delegates’ Bank account numbers were collected by the campaign team.

The team of the Vice President was in Minna to solicit  support from delegates ahead of the Congress of the ruling party at Government House Minna.

Delegates had converged at Government House Minna as early as 10.00AM yesterday for the arrival of Professor Yemi Osinbanjo, who was expected in the State to address  about 300 delegates.

 Osinbanjo however, arrived Government House Minna around  4.10pm along with his host, Governor Abubakar Sani Bello of Niger State.

Shortly before his arrival, the Political Adviser to the President,  Babafemi Ojudu had announced to the already seated newsmen to vacate the hall as the meeting was strictly a family affair between the aspirants and the delegates.

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“I’m appealing to you all to kindly leave now before any one is manhandled by the security team, am a journalist too I would not wish that to happen,” Ojudu  said.

In an apparent move to soften the ground for his Principal,  Ojudu assured all delegates present that the Vice President campaign team had made enough arrangements for comfortable accommodation and feeding of all delegates to the Presidential primary scheduled for  May 30 at the Eagle Square.

“We have made adequate arrangements for your accommodation, feeding and  general welfare of all delegates, infact the hotel reservation we made is to ensure that each delegate is entitled to a room to himself, we don’t want a man to share a room with a woman who is not his wife

“There will be a desk officer that will attend to your needs In case you need anything, buses will be provided to convey you to the venue.

“We want you as delegates to carry out this assignment and also enjoy yourselves,” Ojudu added.

The political Adviser to the President further disclosed that, Vice President Osinbanjo if voted into power by February 2023 will review the reward system of the Party to reward all those that contribute to the success of the Party.

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“Every President has about 20,000 jobs he can offer, our thinking is that since we have just a little over 7000 delegates, they should be compensated for their sacrifice and commitment,” he said.

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Emefiele: INEC Considering Moving Its Materials from CBN—Yakubu




.Says Commission Mindful of  Integrity Breach 

.APC Chairmanship Aspirants Bicker over Non-refund of N20m Nomination Fee 

.Mull Taking their matter to Buhari as Adamu Shuns their Written Appeal

By Jude Opara, Abuja and Dan Amasingha, Minna 

As Nigerians continue to express concern over the surprise involvement into partisan politics by the governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) yesterday disclosed that it was considering moving its sensitive and non sensitive electoral materials from the Central Bank of Nigeria, (CBN) which is under the custody of the the now politically exposed Godwin Emefiele, the  governor in order to ensure their safety and integrity.

INEC Chairman, Prof. Mahmood Yakubu disclosed on Thursday during the Second Quarter of the Consultative meeting with media executives at the National headquarters of the Commission in Abuja.

The national electoral body usually secures its materials in the CBN offices across the country, a development that has made some stakeholders to question the safety and security of the materials with Emefiele joining the race for the presidential ticket of the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC)

The INEC boss who was answering a question concerning the security of the items, however, assured that the Commission has never had any cause to worry about the security of the materials in the custody of the apex bank.

Nevertheless, he said if need be, following the apex bank’s incursion into politics, INEC would consider alternative means of safe keeping the materials in order to ensure the confidence of all political stakeholders.

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On the efforts being made to ensure the conduct of a free and credible election in 2023, the INEC Chairman explained that the Commission was living nothing to chance including the periodic training and retraining of its staff and constant engagements with stakeholders including the media, security agencies and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs).

“Based on the provisions of the Electoral Act 2022, the Commission released the Timetable and Schedule of Activities for the 2023 General Election over two months ago. Since then, the official notice for the election has been published as required by law. Similarly, all the 18 political parties in Nigeria have forwarded the schedules for the conduct of their primaries to the Commission and some have commenced the process of choosing their candidates by conducting Ward and Local Government congresses. 

“Beyond the conduct of primaries by political parties, the Commission is required to make Regulations and Guidelines for the implementation of the provisions of the Electoral Act. I am glad to report that the Commission will finalize the document next week to guide the conduct of future elections, including the forthcoming Ekiti and Osun Governorship elections as well as the 2023 General Election”.

He equally gave insight into what is being done to conduct credible elections in Ekiti state next month and Osun in July, saying, “With regard to the Ekiti and Osun Governorship elections, the Commission is processing applications by media organizations for accreditation. I wish to reassure you that all applications will be carefully considered and expeditiously treated. The Commission will also work with the security agencies to ensure the safety and security of journalists and their unimpeded access to all voting and collation locations during elections.

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“The Commission has finished the configuration of the BVAS for the Ekiti State Governorship election. To further ensure optimal performance of the BVAS on Election Day, the Commission will undertake a mock voter accreditation exercise in Ekiti State ahead of the main election on 18th June 2022, the details of which will be announced shortly”.

The President of the Nigeria Union of Journalists (NUJ), Chris Isiguzo reassured the Commission of the readiness of the media to continue to partner with it in ensuring that adequate information on its activities was disseminated.

Isiguzo also cautioned the media practitioners to always be factual in their reportage.

APC Chairmanship Aspirants Bicker over Non-refund of N20m Nomination Fee

Meanwhile a crisis of confidence is brewing in the ruling All Progressives Congress (APC) ahead of its  presidential primary as it is yet to refund the N20million nomination fee it collected from aspirants who vied for the position of the national chairmanship of the party on March 26, against Senator Abdullahi Adamu, who emerged by consensus arrangement. It could be recalled that President Muhammadu Buhari who doubles as the leader of the party had goaded all other aspirants to queue behind his preferred aspirant, Senator Adamu.

It elicited grumble from the other aspirants and party chieftains and by way of damage control, the president stipulated that the party would refund all other aspirants, the N20million they paid for the forms. Some of the aspirants who coughed out N20million to contest for  the  position are worried that the party has moved on without looking at their direction anymore, especially as Buhari further directed the Caretaker Extraordinary Convention Planning Committee (CECPC), headed by Governor Mai Mala Buni of Yobe state to ensure the refund 

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DAILY ASSET investigation  revealed that the situation is causing a palpable tension in the party as some of the former chairmanship aspirants who were prevailed to step down for consensus candidate, Alhaji Abdullahi Adamu are getting agitated.  
Their abandonment is contrary to a directive given by President  Buhari sequel to the brokering of a consensus chairmanship arrangement. 

Among those who were in the national chairmanship race with the current national chairman, Abdullahi Adamu, were former Nasarawa state, Governor Tanko Almakura, Mr Salihu Mustapha from Kwara State, Senator Sani Musa and Mohammed Etsu both from Niger state, Mr Abdul Aziz Yari  from Kebbi state and Mr George Akume from Benue state.

Each of the aspirants had paid the non-refundable fee of N20million before President Buhari persuaded them to step down for Senator Adamu as a his preferred choice.
Having waited without any refund, DAILY ASSET made representations in writing to the new leadership of the party and got no response.
“We have written to the chairman reminding him of the presidential directive, but nothing has been heard from him, ” Mohammed Etsu said.
Etsu disclosed that Adamu has neither replied the letters sent to him nor communicated with any of them verbally.

Asked what step they will take he said: “We might be forced to take the case back to President Muhammadu Buhari since he gave the directive.”

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