By Mathew Dadiya, Abuja
The World Bank Tuesday, called on Nigeria and other developing countries to embark on Value Chain reforms as a panacea to spurring growth in the midst of economic challenges.
Such chains, the Bank noted, enable developing countries to specialize and grow wealthier without having to build whole industries from scratch.
The Bank gave the advice in its World Development Report 2020 tagged ”Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains,” marks the World Bank Group’s first trade-focused development report since the late 1980s.
A value chain is the full range of activities including design, production, marketing and distribution – businesses conduct to bring a product or service from conception to delivery.
According to the report, in an era of slowing trade and growth, developing countries can achieve better outcomes for their citizens through reforms that boost their participation in global value chains.
These reforms can help them expand from commodity exports to basic manufacturing, while ensuring that economic benefits are shared more widely across society, the World Bank stated.
According to the report, global value chains have powered an economic transformation ever since, allowing the poorest countries to quickly climb the development ladder.
World Bank Group Chief Economist, Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, said that global value chains have played an important part in growth, by enabling firms in developing countries to make significant gains in productivity, and by helping them transition from commodity exports to basic manufacturing.
Goldberg said, “In the age of global value chains, all countries have much to benefit by speeding up reforms that increase commerce and boost growth.
“Countries need trade to develop, and an open, predictable environment benefits everyone. To ensure sustained social support for trade, policymakers need to ensure that the benefits of global value chains are widely shared among a broad range of groups—especially the poor and women – and that the environment is protected.”
The report stated: “Today, global value chains account for nearly 50% of trade worldwide. But their growth has plateaued since the financial crisis of 2008, the report finds. Trade frictions have created uncertainties over market access, causing firms to consider delaying investment plans.
“Moreover, the gains from participating in global value chains have not been distributed equally across and within countries. Environmental costs are growing, mainly from higher carbon dioxide emissions due to transportation of intermediate goods across greater distances.”
Daily Asset has also noted that international production, trade and investments are increasingly organised within so-called global value chains (GVCs) where the different stages of the production process are located across different countries.
Globalisation motivates companies to restructure their operations internationally through outsourcing and offshoring of activities.
This emergence of GVCs challenges conventional wisdom on how we look at economic globalisation and in particular, the policies that we develop around it.